[7] Regardless, the Appalachian dialect studied within the last century, like most dialects, actually shows a mix of both older and newer features. 17.2  Indirect wh-questions usually pattern as in general usage except for a striking construction involving how come. book of “book about”: I have a book of him. He was the mayor the year they like to went broke down there. ", Some English strong verbs are occasionally conjugated as weak verbs in Appalachian English, e.g. You never had any trouble out of them people, from Big Catalooch or Little Catalooch, It was just about as steep as a yoke cattle could go up or come down, She found out how to get moonshine without making it or buying it, I'm going home [and] see Emerts Cove or hell, They had [revival] meeting morning and evening or morning and night, I was taught to respect elderly people, and we were to refer to them as aunt or uncle, They [=bears] wouldn't run far. up: The storm scared us up; He was all liquored up; They've got it (a town) renewed up. That's all the far I want to go. Appalachian definition: of, from, or relating to the Appalachian Mountains | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Redundant negation is natural in English, having roots in Old English and being found in every stage of the language and in all vernacular varieties. He just studied after Dr. Massey. My father did the big part of the farming. owing to “according to, depending on”: It's owing to who you're talking to, of course. The indefinite pronoun one is frequently contracted and reduced to ’un (occasionally ’n) when it is unstressed and follows a pronoun (§2.1) or an adjective. occurs frequently with plural subjects of all types: You had to work the roads six days a [year] after you, no use to tell you anything about my sickness, Dr. Abels. She turned over against the wall and she says, “Lord, let me live.”. ... Appalachian English and Ozark English. It may also appear as a reflexive pronoun. 15.4  A redundant that is sometimes used after where, what, and similar combinations to introduce subordinating conjunctions. She’s the aggravatin’est calf I’ve ever had . Some phrases can be inflected for tense, but others are more adverbial in their properties. Appalachian Speech by Walt Wolfram, Donna Christian, Center for Applied Linguistics Center for Applied Linguistics, 1976. All my family thought that was the wonderfullest thing ever was. If you give me thirty minutes, I mighta coulda thought of some names. Reverso for Windows. In the third-person plural, variation between have and has follows the same variable subject-type rule for other verbs (§4.1) and for be (§5.1). lay off “plan for a considerable time”: I laid off and laid off to visit Aunt Phoebe, but never got around to it. The dialectal character of Smokies speech is conspicuous in the use of prepositions. Arika Okrent. a long, bushy beard). It must i been forties whenever he died. along “continuously, steadily, regularly”: We'd kill game along all the time; [He] probably might have sold a few apples along. You ought to i seen us all a-jumping and running. Many researchers believe that it is more a part of the Southern dialect region as it shares many components with it. up and “suddenly, immediately”: They didn't up and take me and run to the doctor; I got to thinking maybe she didn't know it, so I upped and told her that night. down: I shot the bear in the mouth and killed him down; Quieten down a little! to “in”: Ever' bone [of a man's body allegedly murdered] was to its place but one. Little River got to wanting the cables for to take to skid with ’em somewhere. ", Sometimes the past participle of a strong verb such as "do" is used in place of the past tense. [81][48][82] The use of double negatives wasn't uncommon in England during the 17th and 18th centuries. [16] The Appalachian dialect retains a number of speech patterns found in Colonial American English but largely discarded in Standard speech, such as "r" intrusion (e.g., "warsh" for "wash") and a "y" sound in place of "a" on the end of certain words (e.g., "okry" for "okra"). That dog doesn't know whether he wants in or out. generally employing the grammar of Standard American English. -ified on nouns and adjectives to form adjectives: fightified, fitified, girlified, prettified, talkified, townified. They settled up there and entered all that land up back across the river over there where Steve Whaley and them. and Jess and the girl is all buried there on Caldwell Fork. An uncle of mine and a cousin [were] making liquor in above my home. 10.2  An apparently recent, American development of the infinitive is its use to express the “specification” or respect in which something is true. There's not near so many as were at the time we came here. Present participles frequently take the prefix a- (§9). I allowed this corn was planted in the new of the moon, it grew so tall. They was Scot Irish. The older ones was done through school and married. Occasionally it seems appears as seem, with the subject pronoun omitted (“Seem like I've heard it”),  Verbs ending in -st sometimes take a syllabic suffix (parallel to nouns, shown in §1.7). In the recounting past events, especially in narrative style, a speaker may vicariously shift closer to the action by adding -s, usually to say. Occasionally all is placed after a noun for the same reasons. Most convey physical movement. (= as far as), Is that all the best you can do? 1.4  Some mass nouns and singular count nouns ending in -s or a similar consonant may be interpreted as plural in SME, sometimes producing singular forms through back formation. come on to + infinitive: I went in the house when it come on to rain. being of “because of”: Bein' of that, Mr. In Smokies speech a form of big together with the noun it modifies is equivalent to most. 1. Similarly, the use of the "a-" prefix (e.g., "a-goin'" for "going") and the attachment of "-ed" to certain verbs (e.g., knowed), originated in South England. Was occurs frequently with plural subjects of all types: They come from Ireland. Pronouns and adjectives are sometimes combined with "'un" (meaning "one"), such as "young'un" to mean "child," "big'un" to mean "big one," and "you'uns" to mean "you all.". 429, Learn how and when to remove this template message, have the same pronunciation when appearing before "n" or "m", "The American Heritage Dictionary entry: holler", "How do you pronounce Appalachia? Mister Wilson Queen that lived there at the campground, he was a song leader when I was a little girl. They's all sizes from little'uns to big'uns. anyways “in any case, at any rate”: Sometimes you would get more and sometimes less, but anyways from ten to fifteen dollars. There's an old house up here, but don't nobody live in it. in: We dressed the bear and carried him in home. The [hunters] that went the other way into the mountain, they'd killed them turkeys. Thus, of inflected forms in the present tense, only those in the third person require discussion. Too rarely has it been appreciated for what it is—the native speech of millions of Americans that has a distinguished history and that makes Appalachia what it is just as the region's extraordinary music does. English verbal -s revisited: The evidence from Newfoundland. @font-face It's been twenty year ago they offered me a house and land. mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt; Turkey George Palmer was in the upperest house on Indian Creek. If he killed ary'un, it was before my recollection. I was, were                                                we was, were, you was, were                                            you was, were, he/she/it was, were                                    they was, were. It is mostly oral but its features are also sometimes represented in literary works. Hit [=a hog] could eat the guts out of a pumpkin through a hole in the fence, Ellipsis of a conjunction introducing the complement of a verb occurs after. -es to nouns after excrescent -t to form syllabic plurals: clastes, dostes. (= They departed). George O. Curme. 11.5  Negative Inversion. en. (geography) a. los Apalaches (m) means that a noun is masculine. Syntax. -->, (Originally published, in a slightly different form in 2004 in the Dictionary of Smoky Mountain English by Michael Montgomery and Joseph S. Hall, pp. They [=bears] wouldn't run far. Hain’t also occurs, Especially but not exlusively at the beginning of a clause. -ed to form the past-tense and past-participle of verbs: blowed, drawed, growed, knowed, teached, throwed. This sketch is based largely on four types of sources: A) Interviews recorded by Joseph Hall in 1939 and by personnel of and volunteers for the Great Smoky Mountains National Park between 1954 and 1983. 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